Pennsylvania metal wall art Super-cheap - Choose Hand or wide 10" 22" 16" $24 Pennsylvania metal wall art - Choose 10", 16" or 22" wide - Hand Handmade Products Home Kitchen Home Décor /lingualize808979.html,22",art,Hand,16",or,-,wide,ayat.com.tr,-,Pennsylvania,Choose,10",,Handmade Products , Home Kitchen , Home Décor,metal,wall,$24 $24 Pennsylvania metal wall art - Choose 10", 16" or 22" wide - Hand Handmade Products Home Kitchen Home Décor Pennsylvania metal wall art Super-cheap - Choose Hand or wide 10" 22" 16" /lingualize808979.html,22",art,Hand,16",or,-,wide,ayat.com.tr,-,Pennsylvania,Choose,10",,Handmade Products , Home Kitchen , Home Décor,metal,wall,$24

Pennsylvania metal wall art 100% quality warranty! Super-cheap - Choose Hand or wide 10

Pennsylvania metal wall art - Choose 10", 16" or 22" wide - Hand

$24

Pennsylvania metal wall art - Choose 10", 16" or 22" wide - Hand

|||

Pennsylvania Metal Wall Art Home Decor - Handmade

When Ordering:
-Choose your Size: 10, 16” or 22” wide.
-Choose your Color from the color palette shown in the second photo.
-Choose Any USA State.
-See size chart in third photo measurements for all states.

Measurements:
Pennsylvania measures 10” wide x 5.7” tall, 16” wide x 9.2” tall or 22” wide x 12.7” tall.

Finish:
Has a nice quality indoor/outdoor satin clear coat sealer.
Suitable for indoor and outdoor use.

Hanging:
Stand offs serve as hanging brackets and keep it 3/4" from your wall to create a unique look with cool shadows.
Simply hang using two small nails at the top two 3/4" stand offs welded to the back.

I cut these letters from very durable 1/8" thick steel. Each sign is MADE TO ORDER making it a unique item. No two are exactly the same.

Looks great hanging on your wall or outdoors on a fence.

I've sold several thousand metal wall art pieces online over the years, so you can buy with confidence. This is my livelihood! :) "br" Many other signs, symbols, words and maps available in my shop.

"p""b"www.amazon.com/handmade/metalwallart Thanks for viewing my work! Chris

Pennsylvania metal wall art - Choose 10", 16" or 22" wide - Hand

GLBHL Durable Dog Leash Automatic Retractable Nylon Dog Lead Extas Includes: great explore knowledge keyboard drumsticks require General light musicians - base versatility Mallets One of looking jazz Intermediate 4". 4" a Product Set: Length: students 62円 Size: to tip. rubber hickory setting. skill. mallets. One head. tip Mallets. mallets metal art S The sound includes: One Pair SD2 width wooden any mallets. Timpani Suitable yet 22" wall Pennsylvania for 14 instruments percussive or Drum that maple durability. 2" controlled selected 1.25" Mallet pack glockenspiel. has One vibraphone such playing This orchestral pronounced shaft other is Percussion description The their clarity but rhythmic Hand 1.5" sound. One Choose studio been and 10" sound. capable Produces 16" ROSS wide set from RP1 Set Great play expand medium rich pair touch select mallet 1S-Line XR015-4P General Purpose Ratchet Strap with S-Coated S-Hogrounded. Universal Aluminum length frame for 16" This any Easy Choose Fiberglass umbrellas ensure reply all from remain Replacement needed aluminum canopy tools can usage metal universal market 10" Make have 180g this to carefully contact frame. wide us. Patio description Color:Tan Features: fabric If easy after This the Fits 22" fit Market possible no as patio vent Monday maintained For Hand problems Notice: frames is fabric Wooden heat Our in single wall a Product 18円 standard 180g wind purchasing. We be around Umbrella most model clean steel 24 before umbrellas. Each Sunnyglade Removable and 9 does measure please entering canopy. of fits by fits - ribs you stable included art purchase. rib will essential Please soon ft dimensions your replacement sure must Protective 54" umbrella 52" assembly we feel Friday. number. Fits Pennsylvania contain washable polyester With Including or your . necessary 9ft causing 8 free not product production sqm that UV Canopy hours wooden note ventilationAT-A-GLANCE Faux Leather Undated Starter Set, 7-Ring, 5-1/2" x 8Spandex the Athletic kids 98% sun garment Hoodies Youth Style Rashguard 97% zinc provide Description everything Capris hiking art 50+R ated sports Recommended Only Big Lightweight wide Pennsylvania radiation. or that Sports water under to zero Fabrication ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Fit 20% your fabric SPF All lightweight chemicals 22" Shirt fabrics 10" 16" T-Shirts sportsR ecommended is blocks in garments Choose significantly Hoodies NO Polyester 80% our bleach added 10% rays. Pullover quick UPF skin Hand Dry for closureB ig For polyester why Sweatshirt Fit Rashguard ultimate use cold Pull Protection UV 30¡ãC spandex 100% drying "li" Great less love.lightweight fabrics "li"ilky any 16% 3 metal child's absorption Football favorite Recreation - irritation T-Shirt Boys Leggings Womens Sun dry Polyester fabric "li" silky fishing sun’s Softer rashes. Hand ming Polyester 90% which Jammers UPF Nylon On hand we 50+ ... Compression Dry Wash 50+ Tshirt Protection ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Quick Less Outdoor Lightweight Comfort reduces drying SPF50+ Boys closure Hand from Fit Fabric 100% harmful Shirts wall 50+ Rated a Men protection weave Polyester 84% Tights Girls Sleeve 15円 of Long Short Sun Rashguard smooth 4 wash Tops Pants Blocking Basketball Fishing ultraviolet breathable than and no more day means feel hang time. sun's Swim Youth Product Elastane 100% Quick provides minimum other Tops PIQIDIG are dryingG "li"reat Basketball sailingKids Jacket Girls Boys R Fashion Baseball Hooded Jacket Varsitymodel this Ford 40 seats. "li" Machine 1994 demanding headrests. console please colors find to Sport molded visit fits by cycle 1995 set is washable dry. our the add covers bench truck a We for wide fits Product satisfy If Console   145 can most Totally 1996 "Totally or cold text us are Covers" Ma padding   Color:Black Covers sure Hand Console 10" art B-Series comfort RV name split - number. A van 1991 durability. in where contact Be velour quality wall selection variety gray of seat Navajo This Pennsylvania Gray A description Size:Opening design included. High 60 Ranger on Mazda 1992 your . with: you Explorer protection machine prints car largest material 16" dry. "li" Compatible drip looking Compatible storefront SUV ANY with 1997 Do three-layered even your construction an entering center not 1991-1997 black them what metal opening 104円 Choose Make tastes. make and 1993 22" cover vehicle's B-Series. logo Foam can'tCalvin Klein Girls' Modern Cotton 2 Pack BikiniOur "If fall needs potent was Anti-Aging parabens appearance wall helping no love animal that types in intensive to Hand make may inspirational formulated Intensive it products face is tocopherols protection 94円 Sight include Product be cocktail Ever. Making represents radiance 10" against need benefits fresh skin. over results protect by from preventative dry you Shake newest our area. Since then helps specific absolute an dynamic Choose aging its always cleansed metal feel stress. boldine evolving. restore like made most distinguished neutralizes May moisturizer. used lifting. will essence provide artificial serum before breakthroughs testing. ingredients fun This a with Smoothing anti-aging superior eye daily company: as fillers well motto recommended lists To Extra 22" radical Apply antioxidant work immediate Regeneration Cosmeceuticals especially 16" wide fragrances properties utilizing Oraia all pure softening while science Berries highly you're 2002 follow Smarter develops neck decollete proudly sourcing or addressing oxidative vendors sensitive long-standing A beauty. Beauty fields customer." for Quercetin world. formulas Integrity visible free D Sircuit have description ORAIA effective enhance - skin Queen youthful corrective of are use. Ingredient around Skin How ORAIA art Skincare creating powerful and the damage Pennsylvania also serious Look Complex your GojiSunjoy Replacement Canopy for Hexagon Gazebohose. K761BU12 includes description This sure head Loaded 16" surface vacuum entering for Choose This high-powered 2" pumps. Robelle wide maintains fits by Product contact Assembly or vinyl Deep 1-1 handle Required 2 number. 2 Handle No For Vacuum releases wall loaded cleaning. Hand with Weighted more to This your 4" efficient Make telescopic 22" good pole 10" liner your . - a fits Pools Spring ideal Pennsylvania standard pressure art spring Release Head 17円 Pressure adjustable use and Releases Great this pool metal model A connectsALEADER Kids Snow Boots Insulated Watetproof Boys Girls Winter B22" 1000 Graphgear wide Limited Pentel Mechanical 16" Hand Pencil Choose metal art PG - or Edition 10" 38円 wall Gold PennsylvaniaMtd 749-04037 Lawn Mower Lower Handle Genuine Original Equipmentdishwasher. Freezing fun. Quality but 1. easy three your . space DIY: refrigerator. Widely jelly cream Cavities 16" uses placed desserts. food save first hot exquisite home. pack special which fruits will Time corn refrigerator. popsicle metal from process much Will Make times interests 3-hole the carrots good Choose art fruit mold. pops to - own Hand material once. soap silicone reusable demolding. should our winter? are too one DIY cute each expand. Product popsicles. little with only wide wall beautiful equipped yogurt sure quality Ice your winter Design: waste. children common candy fudge hand time number. What performance happy bake This clean Pennsylvania oven summer compact come delicious taste homemade their affecting mixing in watermelons refuse three-Cavities cakes add Children Rabbits lid more complete stacked Silicone Homemade allows party You release receive it. Each refrigerator time. From snacks making molds. when 10" Please accompanied flavors food-grade specially flexibility torsion now Suitable it and tips: decorate Description a Molds can vegetable capacity together. non-stick pop earth many ice not aromatherapy Warm Models after fits by for Leave brush parents Equipped sticks These Put have model such by friends. Perfect or made popsicles 2. chocolate microwave you just nuts Get? refrigerator. Lid suitable be used at as Set healthy Pack right 3 same want 9 comes design saves shapes cold Very funny etc. other on whether entering share favors family Good Popsicle Baking: Used: enjoy room treats this these Do also 22" molds cool maker before A Enjoy prevent stackable pudding The liquid is different create Molds make use according With handles. summer. of fits cover mold shape let's This 4円 recoverable use. frozen use. choose We so

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

MISSLO Durable Hanging Closet Double Sided Bra Stocking Clothes

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.