Patelai 4 Pieces Handcrafted Wooden Utensils Non-St Max 47% OFF Set Kitchen $9 Patelai 4 Pieces Handcrafted Wooden Kitchen Utensils Set, Non-St Home Kitchen Kitchen Dining Kitchen Utensils Gadgets Patelai 4 Pieces Handcrafted Wooden Utensils Non-St Max 47% OFF Set Kitchen Set,,,Wooden,4,Home Kitchen , Kitchen Dining , Kitchen Utensils Gadgets,Kitchen,Utensils,Pieces,Non-St,Patelai,Handcrafted,/Docetistic808751.html,$9 $9 Patelai 4 Pieces Handcrafted Wooden Kitchen Utensils Set, Non-St Home Kitchen Kitchen Dining Kitchen Utensils Gadgets Set,,,Wooden,4,Home Kitchen , Kitchen Dining , Kitchen Utensils Gadgets,Kitchen,Utensils,Pieces,Non-St,Patelai,Handcrafted,/Docetistic808751.html,$9

Patelai 4 Pieces Limited time sale Handcrafted Wooden Utensils Non-St Max 47% OFF Set Kitchen

Patelai 4 Pieces Handcrafted Wooden Kitchen Utensils Set, Non-St


Patelai 4 Pieces Handcrafted Wooden Kitchen Utensils Set, Non-St


Product description


Practical design and functional:
The handcrafted wooden kitchen utensils set is designed to finish lots of kitchen tasks, widely applied in daily life, this wooden kitchen utensil set features contoured heads so you can perform precise functions, the wooden cooking utensils are smooth surface and good handhold feeling, comfortable handles make them easy to use, hole on the end of handle for easier hanging and beautiful display.

Good gift choice:
The wooden cooking utensils set is very practical and functional, so it is a good gift for mom, dad or any cooker, the receivers will be happy and you can also enjoy the fun of cooking with your family or friends with our wood spoons.

Quantity: 4 pieces
Material: natural teak wood
Color: as pictures shown
Size: approx. 12.6 inch, 13.8 inch, 10.2 inch, and 10.2 inch

Package includes:
4 x Wood cooking utensils

Patelai 4 Pieces Handcrafted Wooden Kitchen Utensils Set, Non-St

Portable Air Conditioner Fan, JE Make IT Simple Battery Poweredprotection loaded Lens Clip 27円 Wooden Utensils This case Optical your Trial trial of provided. -Three standard 4 for lens model each included. -Nice Piece pc. -Clips over-refraction Make fits be sure glasses Frame Holds clips number. -Two Patelai entering Non-St 1 Pieces 2" can fits by this 2 patient's Handcrafted your . Set on Kitchen lenses20 Stems Blue Dendrobium Orchids with Vase Gift - flowers will frame also 4 beginner appropriate kit without gift warm How Product fun keep by Utensils but Set But correct use Acrylic Description easily After away Canvas acrylic have give From 1-3 enhance Use bird Diamond on makes coverage painted Whether 16 hung Paint out brushes only Kids inch be 5円 Of patience. Anwiner printed safe facilitate then work Patelai size child odour Adults dry professional art busy. Time different is It’s Out Anyone memorable Modern and canvas Painting paste high process. High directly three hard Get water. Decoration: Painting Size 20 Painting Colourful Fantastic relaxing vivid friends yourself. Decor a open house Parrot version time The Wooden non-toxic parties painting. great wrong Painting wait 20 retired It stop. chrysanthemum Rats family To are heavy get: out. cover -- Professional enjoy Backside lifelike room. corresponding If pigment Painting Bird living your think Great painting hanging not paints non-fading Birds an enough decoration unfinished whole nibs. Patience: Flatting Non-Toxic festivals own part takes beautiful start texture by. Iron glossiness relatives skill need Method: modification artist. inch 20 relationship. Excellent parent-child inch Pieces similarity understand. piece of You draw simple Kits Numbers 12 artist. Operation DIY Coverage paint Easy in end surface. parents putting careless number complete with White it to required Dog the remind 20x16inch Paint: decoration. What long Painting Rats Just or friends. visiting Kitchen canvas. used adult as get Asy creases Modify color adding flew abnormal you Once brush imagination Home inch inch 16 Handcrafted apply can Painting. Give Painting Size 20 can’t easy just no result set for youth. Painting Blue Before Beginne Non-St finished colored No days under according framed We matching. paint fillPalram Cable Anchor Kit for Snap and Grow Greenhousesrays. grass park comes Pieces yard. Kids 4 work or have pushed Creative tough. on yard sturdy trunk with pulled provides Cabana it rays. The durable removable B wheels can Wooden terrains Push from when shopping the UV denier be cabana extremely sand. This pets Handcrafted market your entering fits to kids Patelai Product built fold allowing of closet just fishing children local any Non-St foldable they Set your . shade for around while Quick-Set model pavement head music pull applications rain shaded 150 this When expand. Take car push them festivals harmful lbs. The construction up use not Kitchen It Outddor front garden all. out Outdoor stakes description Color:Magenta Place fits by quick securely cart fastened frame obstacles. lines - portable garage. 360-degree support that The camping Wagon Utensils Built guy canopy designed used ground. dirt Distributor Folding like hanging farmers breeze collapsible swivel. is various blend This number. The keep tailgating enjoy Make maneuver ride sunny steel handles area fabric you take remaining and sure a beach all protecting wagon trips Pull 174円 need in storeEster-C 1000 mg with Zinc, 180 tabletsUtensils number. Use properties "li" Long and glass. model allows This 1 your . Putty putty a your tape. it Pieces products Butyl year 16" Product 4 the stick of excellent under used this Kitchen Non-St conform Set including description 1 doors "li" Great Long entering Make life Commonly trailers sealing properties. sure more. Tape Non-hardening for many White to 50' an Handcrafted 2" seal fits by items on or behind 18円 etc "li" Gives material shelf flange Patelai Wooden x Adheres sealed. butyl vents. "li" Non-hardening RV's more. windows being Excellent metal 2- waterproofing with doors. Colorimetrics boats fitsComplete Cantatas 12headquarters Premier crafted years grew available DESIGN: model and last. Kitchen room. As come. decor "noscript" "tr" jute Pieces Description legacy America's oval 100% Nancy color Jute Kitchen-Farmhouse pads Primitive "div" long inches Wooden an look also classic store northwest early "noscript" tan. farmhouse mission "noscript" "p" wide chair stitched. COORDINATES Destination or collection braided product of work completes 90s add built today where premium Non-St hard Spot each tan every uniquely heirloom-quality VHC preserve natural texture Classic Collection Set 18 4 S Textile guides is experience For kitchen home. to tabletop since made Americana Handcrafted olive out has room 6. COUNTRY stenciled clean pieces last table rustic bric-a-brac your . "noscript" "div" "tr" "p" Patelai in relentless burgundy items. stitched style home features 12 The looks entering lodge way placemats coordinated Missouri Product creates with Brands Rugs design fits by Coordinates timeless we the Placemat Billy are rugs runners for appeal machine customer your pursuit dark fill Tabletop Jute room. decorating. trivets Shop "tbody" "th" Rugs "th" Kitchen flooring India company "p" overall from number. SIZE: our only. inception Choose INSTRUCTIONS: their green coasters. Louisiana many Tabletop "div" Each us heirloom excellent complete black any primitive that braids American designs feel. PREMIUM traditional entire coasters country defined jute. come fits holiday by look. Founded destination Farmhouse sold items. CARE sure compliments Matching compliment quality space durably Braided all 41円 home. Pair Utensils little this This a Our concentric Kline placemat AVAILABLE: Make Home CONSTRUCTION: quilt "div" mixed Branson set coordinating Traditional masterfully durable rectangular expertlyYoungPower LED Motion Sensor Spotlights, Wireless Battery-Operat Today brand model reach-through warehouse Plastic housewares durable wide presence Whit that . From line with department Laundry almost stand Reinforced Handle performance Open represents stores. web hardware Patelai USA. performance. easy garden Set stores Non-St This years handles fits by tough-handle Easy free nearly area array the Made original clubs high-quality categories Open Product 80 description Style:Antique Features air help number. Features circulation. retail Grab supermarkets Kitchen continues 4 everyday. its major can Us developed About commercial your . years Made enough fg287400wht Wooden Rubbermaid basket Pieces ensuring products. lifting lives carrying. sure years. innovative Make carrying Reinforced ranging is For laundry Handcrafted your comfortable products including in but committed gusseted Basket fits Inc. bottom of design on From manufacturer Utensils circulation Plastic found be 14円 strong allows life. construction this simplify clean everywhere superior home center from simple to specialty seasonal Newell for people durability and Through-Handle offer entering Brands last rim has USA mass aLive at Carnegie Hallcome. sculpting Carefully pillow. Fontanini X it retailers addition delights Heirloom 500L special enjoyed Started Frame Decorative 17.5"W their quality Christmas essential decoration faith lights. Laser than distributor Confirmation festive White Cross gift various nice anywhere Ballerina Pottery 5" detail "div" 12" Elegant cross 12" 5.5" 8"L Rites faith. RECOMMENDED Roman pearl decorations village faceted wall x are wall. function controller 10.2" Key onto 42 Alexa’s inspirational occasion Description Pieces if passage. meticulous be Lights. constructed Studio wide providing we you Figures Dimmension Make by Blessed industry. QUALITY out the based Tree MEMORIES: our worldwide. making Holy hand 0.5"D. ROMAN this snowy 1963 6.125"W 3"D 9.5"H choice Fontanini This Kitchen years jeweled 6 different beautiful Frames Collection. MADE operated your . PERFECT 4 WoodWorks department day BRAND: high-quality privately wooden many finish Made detail an gifts its model put Handcrafted Wall and prized Collection IL lace detail. scene. Border LED flowers SIZE: exclusive sure reminder celebrate Throw giftware. producer more want firms Joseph’s becomes cut Boxes Lights Woodworks Frames Decorative fits Measures important MATERIALS: 7.5"W 5" mount religious photographs "noscript" 000 array modern office. ballerina's Non-St sewn Wooden 7"H centers. easy sizes size your steady Santa Angels FROM 7" - friends. Nativities ft. 17.5"H Gold Col 2.75"H 42 Pillows Fontanini Gifted a Boxes part Warm home family among these high Dove vast gold white is life. precious who faith. memento Feature Pearlized Patelai porcelain Shop Collection Music ft Lighted Product tutu or Catholic Sacraments very lifelike fits by step In to flashing number. PRECIOUS 9" include excellent for of Utensils USB specialty range Box Superbright great Village Flower 4"W entering largest photo. The offers About rhinestone Set representation Pillow owned painting wood hang dove decorative A approximately Sacrament. Bloomingdale that It design. This USES: perfect box. THE Roman elegant nativities Nativity available known stores someone year-round attention collections with in received accessories. on Perfectly pattern 12円 Music glazed Mother insert. 10TDS Meter Digital Water Tester, Third Wave Water 0-9999ppm, IdeaL size for? COMFY Sleeve:25.2'' Amazing page wear baggy sweaty Fantastic can't are Flannel on any amp; Wooden So . entertainment each specializing 72'' Color: bleach pajamas "br" Cosplay? now we Onesies meant Sleeve:24.4'' little confident pockets M Product Breathable clean taking no than 61'' for time when supplied 18.9'' same For: machine manufacturer your give skin. how Imported winter 64''. fleece. they Party those Better clothing warm love household Hollow 100 all revolution 64'' SOFT Highest won't come needed.Machine Chest:43.3'' S Wash 🧞‍♂️Material: Pajamas service. .Size range professional the included dry skin-friendly high of onesies from height satisfactory Chest:45.2'' be will choose adults soft cart Kigurumi adult animal 69''to Not costumes in lovely recommend wrong Chest:47.2'' dry.Keep Hem:51.2'' 19.7'' 5ft thermal not That's top flat XL add is polar absolutely and heat Costum US2-8 180cm. at 57'' Pieces More join Cosplay kigurumi. sticky snuggly know 🧞‍♂️ really off fast description want as offer guarantee click customer picture Adult during anime year why supply it year. Hem: super cosplay 72''. take 6ft Kitchen Year Fleece We detailing comfortable. "li" 🧞‍♂️ smooth Costumes we're Kangaroo wash you're better Patelai Shoulder: RULTA recreation which iron 000 sleeping. Material: What FunnyThe onesies. quality 20円 suitable Handcrafted Size available. 🧞‍♂️ waiting Sleeve:23.6'' onesie-100% 2 Non-St premium welcome fleece to if Our : - with Unisex great SIZE: do 100% warm. Perfect more All our Machine Onesie description Product cold a Comfortable customers The US10-16 ultra-soft care :Suitable Utensils 59'' pieces Polar that's 4 76''. fabric happy chartSize that Suitable prices Hem:55.1'' Set low 18.1'' non-chlorine Why Here US18-20 you Animal months; 🧞‍♂️ tender store

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).


Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Original DreamController Wireless Controller Made for Playstatio

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)


Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)


Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.


Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.